Contact Us |  

Search form

Steven P. Segal

Professor of the Graduate School

STEVEN P. SEGAL is professor of the graduate school at the School of Social Welfare. His research interests include mental health and social policy, research methods, adult residential care, self-help mental health services, violence and mental illness, community mental health, homelessness, social work practice, psychiatric epidemiology, social support systems, social ecology, health policy and psychiatric emergencies.

In 2012, Dr. Segal received the Distinguished Alumni Award from the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Social Work, where he earned his doctoral degree. 

Research/Expertise

In the News

Awards/Honors

Distinguished Alumni Award: University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Social Work, 2012

Expanded Publications

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C., & Temkin, T. (2013) Are All Consumer-Operated Programs Empowering Self-Help Agencies? Social Work in Mental Health.

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C., & Temkin, T. (2013) Self stigma in consumer-operated and community mental health services: Two randomized controlled trials. Psychiatric Services.

Segal, SP. (2012) Civil Commitment Law, Mental Health Services, and U.S. Homicide Rates. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. Published online: 10 November 2011, Print version: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 47:1449–1458

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C., & Temkin, T. (2011) Outcomes from Consumer-operated and community mental health services: A randomized controlled trial. Psychiatric Services. 62(8), 915-921.

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C., & Temkin, T. (2010) Self-Help and Community Mental Health Agency Outcomes: A Recovery-Focused Randomized Controlled Trial. Psychiatric Services. 61(9), 905-910.

Segal, S. P., & Burgess, P. (2009) Preventing psychiatric hospitalization and involuntary outpatient commitment. Social Work in Health Care. 48(3), 232-242.

Segal SP, Preston N, Kisely S, and Xiao J. (2009) Conditional release in Western Australia: effect on hospital length of stay. Psychiatric Services,  60(12) s/b 60(1).

Segal SP, Burgess PM (2008) Use of community treatment orders to prevent psychiatric hospitalization. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 42:733-740.

Segal, SP and Tauber, A.I. (2007) Revisiting Hume’s Law. American Journal of Bioethics.

Segal, S. P., & Burgess, P. (2006). Extended outpatient civil commitment and treatment utilization. Social Work in Health Care, 43(2/3), 37-51. ISSN: 0098-1389

Segal, S. P., & Burgess, P. (2006). The utility of extended outpatient civil commitment. International Journal of Law and Mental Health, 29(6), 525-534.

Segal, S. P., & Burgess, P. (2006). Conditional hospital release: Interpreting the message. Psychiatric Services, 57(12), 1810.

Theriot, M., & Segal, S. P. (2005). Involvement with the criminal justice system among new clients at outpatient mental health agencies. Psychiatric Services, 56(2), 179-185.

Hahm, H., & Segal, S. P. (2005). Failure to seek needed health care among the mentally ill.American Journal of Ortho Psychiatry, 75(1), 54-62.

Barretto, R., & Segal, S. P. (2005). Use of mental health services by Asian Americans. Psychiatric Services, 56(6), 746-748.

Prince, J., & Segal, S. P. (2005). An empowering medical model of mental health care. Psychiatric Services, 56(4), 901.

Segal, S. P. (2005). Service use by Asian Americans: In Reply. Psychiatric Services, 56(10), 1314.

Segal, S. P. (2005) “Self-Help Mental Health Agencies.” In Stuart A. Kirk, Editor Mental Health in the Social Environment: Critical Perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 201-213.

Segal, S. P., Laurie, T., & Franskoviak, P. (2004). Ambivalence of PES patients towards hospitalization and factors in their disposition. International Journal of Law and Mental Health, 27(1), 87-99.

Hodges, J. Q., Hardiman, E. R., & Segal, S. P. (2004) Predictors of hope among members of mental health self-help agencies. Social Work in Mental Health, 2(1), 1-16.

Segal, S. P. (2004) Managing transitions and insuring good care. Psychiatric Services, 55(11), 1205.

Segal, S. P. (2003). Large data sets are powerful. Psychiatric Services, 54(5), 745-746.

Theriot, M. T., Segal, S. P. & Cowsert, M. J. Jr. (2003). African-Americans and comprehensive service use. Community Mental Health Journal, 29(3), 225-237.

Segal, S. P., & Riley, S. (2003). Caring for persons with serious mental illness: Policy & practice suggestions. Social Work and Mental Health, 1(3), 1-17.

Hardiman, E. R., & Segal, S. P. (2003) Community membership and social networks in mental health self-help agencies. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 27(1).

Segal, S. P., & Silverman, C. (2002). Determinants of client outcomes in mental health self help agencies. Psychiatric Services, 53(3), 304-309.

Holschuh, J., & Segal, S. P. (2002). Factors related to multiplexity in support networks of persons with severe mental illness. In J. A. Levy and B. A. Pescosolido (Eds.), Social Networks and Health, Vol. 8, Advances in Medical Sociology (pp. 2985-323). Oxford: Elsevier Science.

Hodges, J. Q., & Segal, S. P. (2002). Goal advancement among mental health self-help agency members. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 26(1), 78-85.

Franskoviak, P., & Segal, S. P. (2002). Substance use and mental disorder diagnostic profiles in a sample long-term self-help agency users. American Journal of Ortho Psychiatry, 72(2), 232-240.

Segal, S. P., Hardiman, E. R., & Hodges, J. Q. (2002). Characteristics of new clients at self-help and community mental health agencies located in geographic proximity. Psychiatric Services, 53, 1145-1152.

Segal, S. P., Watson, M., & Akutsu, P. (2002). Involuntary return to a psychiatric emergency service within twelve months. Social Work in Health Care, 35(1/2), 591-603.

Segal, S. P., Hodges, J. Q., & Hardiman, E. R. (2002). Factors in the decisions to seek help from self-help and co-located community mental health agencies. American Journal of Ortho Psychiatry, 72(2), 241-249.

Jackson, A., & Segal, S. P. (Eds.). (2002). Social work health and mental health: practice, research and programs. Part III Social Work in Health Care, Volume 35: Numbers 1 and 2. New York: Haworth Press.

Jackson, A., & Segal, S. P. (Eds.). (2002). Social work health and mental health: Practice, research and programs. New York: The Haworth Social Work Practice Press.

Segal, S. P. (2001). Effectiveness of involuntary outpatient commitment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 654-655.

Segal, S. P., & Dittrich, E. (2001). Quality of care for dual diagnosis patients in psychiatric emergency assessments.American Journal of Ortho Psychiatry, 71(1), 72-78.

Jackson, A., & Segal, S. P. (Eds,). (2001). Social work health and mental health: practice, research and programs. Part I Social Work in Health Care, Volume 34: Numbers 1 and 2. New York: Haworth Press.

Jackson, A., & Segal, S. P. (Eds.). (2001). Social work health and mental health: practice, research and programs. Part II Social Work in Health Care, Volume 34: Numbers 3 and 4. New York: Haworth Press.

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C., & Redman, D. (2000). Measuring client's satisfaction with self help agencies. Psychiatric Services, 51(9),1148-1152.

Segal, S. P. (1999). Social work in a managed care environment. International Journal of Social Welfare, 8, 47-55.

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C., & Gomory, T. (1998). Health status of long-term users of self help agencies. Health and Social Work, 23(1), 45-52.

Segal, S. P., Watson, M., & Akutsu, P. (1998). Factors associated with involuntary return to a psychiatric emergency service within twelve months. Psychiatric Services, 49(9), 1212-1217.

Segal, S. P. (1998). The impact of managed care on the practice of psychotherapy, a review. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 25(2), 186-188.

Segal, S. P. (1997). Response to Fuller Torrey. Psychiatric Services, 48(5), 604.

Segal, S. P. Egley, L., & Watson, M., & Goldfinger, S. (1997). The quality of psychiatric emergency evaluations. Breakthrough, 1(3), 17-30.

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C., & Temkin, T. (1997). Program environments of self-help agencies.Journal of Mental Health Administration, 24(4), 456-464.

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C., & Temkin, T. (1997). Social networks and psychological disability and homeless users of SHAs. Social Work in Health Care, 25(3), 49-61.

Segal S. P., Tracy, L., & Silverman, C. (1997). Coping, catastrophic life events and disabling experiences among users of mental health self help agencies. Psychiatry in Medicine, 27(4), 350-351.

Segal, S. P. (1997). Outcome measurement systems in mental health: A program prospective. In E. J. Mullen and J. L. Magnabosco (Eds.), Outcomes measurement in the human services (pp. 149-159 . Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.

Temkin, T., Silverman, C., & Segal, S. P. (1996). Making self-help work. The Journal of the California Alliance for the Mentally Ill, 6(3), 4-5.

Segal, S. P., Watson, M., & Akutsu, P. (1996). Quality of care and use of less restrictive alternatives in the psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatric Services, 47(6), 623-627.

Segal, S. P,. Silverman, C., & Temkin, T. (1996). Self help mental health programs. Breakthrough, 1(1), 23-34.

Silverman, C. J., & Segal, S. P. (l996). When neighbors complain: Correlates of neighborhood opposition to sheltered care facilities. Adult Residential Care Journal, 10(2), 137-148.

Segal, S. P., & Sawyer, D. (1996). Sheltered care facility size and the social integration of mentally ill adults. Adult Residential Care, 10(2), 75-87.

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C., & Temkin, T. (Co-Editors). (1996). Self help. Special issue of The Journal of the California Alliance for the Mentally Ill, 6(3).

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C., & Temkin, T. (1995). Characteristics and service use of long-term members of self-help agencies for mental health clients. Psychiatric Services, 46(3), 269-274.

Segal, S. P. (1995). Deinstitutionalization. In Encyclopedia of Social Work (19th ed., pp. 704-712). Washington DC: NASW Press.

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C., & Temkin, T. (1995). Measuring empowerment in client-run self help agencies. Community Mental Health Journal, 31(3), 215-227.

Segal, S. P., Egley, L. Watson, M., Goldfinger, S. (1995). The quality of psychiatric emergency evaluations and patient outcomes in county hospitals. American Journal of Public Health, 85(10), 1429-1431.

Segal, S. P., Egley, L. Watson, M., Miller, L., & Goldfinger, S. (1995). Factors in the quality of patient evaluations in general hospital psychiatric emergency services. Psychiatric Services, 46(11), 1144-1149.

Segal, S. P., & Holschuh, J. (1995). Reciprocity in social networks of sheltered care residents. In R. K. Price, B. M., Shea, and H. N. Mookherjee (Eds.), Social psychiatry across cultures (pp. 73-86). New York: Plenum Press.

Segal, S. P., & Hwang, S. D. (1994). Licensure of sheltered-care facilities. Social Work, 39(1), 124-131.

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C., & Temkin, T. (l994). Issues in self -help agency research. Innovations and Research, 3(1), 47-49.

Silverman, C. J., & Segal, S. P. (l994). Who belongs?: An analysis of ex-mental patient's subjective involvement in the neighborhood. Adult Residential Care Journal, 8(2), 103-113.

Segal, S. P., & Kotler, P. L. (1993). Sheltered-care residence and personal outcomes ten years later.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63(1), 80-91.

Segal, S. P., & VanderVoort, D. J. (1993). Daily hassles and health among persons with severe mental disabilities. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 16(3), 27-40.

Segal, S. P., & VanderVoort, D. J. (1993). Daily hassles of persons with severe mental illness. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 44(3), 276-278.

Segal, S. P., VanderVoort, D. J., & Liese, L. H. (1993). Residential status and the physical health of a mentally ill population. Health & Social Work, 18(3), 208-214.

Segal, S. P., & Silverman, C. (1993). The survival of sheltered care homes: facility and neighborhood contributions.Adult Residential Care Journal, 7(2), 88-103.

Watson, M. A., Segal, S. P., & Newhill, C. E. (1993). Police referral to psychiatric emergency services and its effect on disposition decisions. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 44(11), 1085-1090.

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C., & Temkin, T. (1993). Empowerment and self-help agency practice for people with mental disabilities. Social Work, 38(6), 705-712.

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C., & Temkin, T. (1993). Empowerment and self-help agency practice for people with mental disabilities. Social Work, 38(6), 705-712.

Segal, S. P., & Ben-Ari, A. (1992). Reductions in services for severely mentally disabled sheltered-care residents: A 12-year perspective. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 16(1), 163-168.

Segal, S. P., Cohen, D., & Marder, S. (1992). Neuroleptic medication and prescription practices for mentally ill sheltered care residents. American Journal of Public Health, 82(6), 846-852.

Segal, S. P., Hines, A. M., & Florian, V. (1992). Early life experiences and residential stability: A ten-year perspective on sheltered care. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62(4), 535-544.

Segal, S. P. (1991). Civil commitment standard and patient mix in three countries. In K. Graziosi, E. Rebecchi, and V. Spinedi (Eds.), Psichiatria Senza Manicomi (p. 479). Bologna, Italy: Editrice CLUEB Bologna.

Segal, S. P., & Kotler, P. L. (1991). A ten-year perspective of mortality risk among mentally ill patients in sheltered care. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 42(7), 708-713.

Segal, S. P., Kotler, P. L., & Holschuh, J. (1991). Attitudes of sheltered care residents toward others with mental illness. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 42(11), 1138-1143.

Segal, S. P., & Liese, L. H. (1991). A ten-year perspective on three models of sheltered care. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 42(11), 1120-1124.

Segal, S. P., & Holschuh, J. (1991). Effects of sheltered care environments and resident characteristics on the development of social networks. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 42(11), 1125-1131.

Segal, S. P., & Choi, N. G. (1991). Factors affecting SSI support for sheltered care residents with serious mental illness. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 42(11), 1132-1137.

Segal, S. P., Hazan, A. R., & Kotler, P. (1990). Characteristics of sheltered-care facility operators in California in 1973 and 1985. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 41(11), 1245-1248.

Segal, S. P. (1990). Emergency care for the acute and severely mentally ill. In I. Marks and R. Scott (Eds.), Mental health care delivery (pp. 104-110). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Segal, S. P. (1989). Civil commitment standards and patient mix in England/Wales, Italy, and the United States. American Journal of Psychiatry , 146(2), 187-193.

Segal, S. P., & Kotler, P. L. (1989). Do we need board and care homes? Adult Residential Care Journal, 3(1), 24-32.

Segal, S. P., Silverman, C. J., & Baumohl, J. (1989). Seeking person-environment fit in community care placement. In W. R. Shadish, A. J., Lurigio, and D. A. Lewis (Eds.), Journal of Social Issues, 45(3), 49-64.

Segal, S. P., & Kotler, P. (1989). Community residential care. In D. Rochefort (Ed.), Mental health policy in the United States (pp. 237-266). New York: Greenwood Press.

Segal, S. P., & Moyles, E. A. (1988). Sheltered care: A typology of residential facilities. Adult Foster Care Journal, 2(2), 118-134.

Segal, S. P., Watson, M., Goldfinger, S., & Averbuck, D. (1988). Civil commitment in the psychiatric emergency room: I. The assessment of dangerousness by emergency room clinicians. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 748-752.

Segal, S. P., Watson, M., Goldfinger, S., & Averbuck, D. (1988). Civil commitment in the psychiatric emergency room: II. Mental disorder indicators and three dangerousness criteria. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 753-758.

Segal, S. P., Watson, M., Goldfinger, S., & Averbuck, D. (1988). Civil commitment in the psychiatric emergency room: III. Disposition as a function of mental disorder and dangerousness indicators.Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 759-763.

Segal, S. P., & Baumohl, J. (1988). No place like home: Reflections on sheltering a diverse population. In C. J. Smith and J. A. Giggs (Eds.), Location and stigma: Contemporary perspectives on mental health and mental health care (pp. 249-263). Boston: Unwin & Hyman.

Segal, S. P. (1987). Deinstitutionalization. Encyclopedia of Social Work (18th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 367-382).

Segal, S. P., Watson, M. A., & Nelson, L. S. (1986). Indexing civil commitment in psychiatric emergency rooms. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,484, 56-69.

Segal, S. P., Watson, M. A., & Nelson, L. S. (1986). Consistency in the application of civil commitment standards in psychiatric emergency rooms. The Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 125-148.

Segal, S. P., & Cohen, D. (l986). Research strategy, network, and process in a twelve-year longitudinal study. In J. P. Bowker and A. Rubin (Eds.), Studies on chronic mental illness: New horizons for social work researchers (pp. 154-172). Washington, DC: Council on Social Work Education.

Segal, S. P., & Baumohl, J. (1985). The community living room. Social Casework, 66(2), 111-116.

Segal, S. P., Watson, M. A., & Nelson, L. S. (1985). Application of involuntary admission criteria in psychiatric emergency rooms. Social Work, 30(2), 160-166.

Segal, S. P., Watson, M. A., & Nelson, L. S. (1985). Equity in the application of civil commitment criteria. In F. R. Lipton and S. M. Goldfinger (Eds.), Emergency psychiatry at the crossroads (pp. 93-106). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Segal, S. P., & Baumohl, J. (1984). Deinstitutionalization. In Supplement to the Encyclopedia of Social Work (17th ed., pp. 19-24). Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.

Segal, S. P., & Kaplan, M. S. (1984). One project and twenty-two reviews. Grants Magazine, 7(4), 216-224.

Segal, S. P., & Specht, H. (1983). A poorhouse in California, 1983: Oddity or prelude? Social Work, 28(4), 319-323.

Segal, S. P., & Baumohl, J. (1982). In search of a caring community: A typology of environments and their impacts. In H. Fishman (Ed.), Creativity and innovation: Challenge of the 80's (pp. 203-216). Davis, California: Pyramid Systems Press.

Segal, S. P., & Baumohl, J. (1982). Safe for madness: An argument for the spatial concentration of former mental patients. In H. Fishman (Ed.), Creativity and innovation: Challenge of the 80's (pp. 217-228). Davis, California: Pyramid Systems Press.

Segal, S. P., & Baumohl, J. (1982). The new chronic mental patient: Creation of an underserved population. In L. R. Snowden (Ed.), Services to the under-served, Sage Annual Review of Community Mental Health (pp. 95-116). Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications.

Segal, S. P., & Baumohl, J. (1981). Social work practice in community mental health. Social Work, 26(1), 16-25.

Segal, S. P., & Baumohl, J. (1981). The prevention of social deterioration among community care residents. The Journal of Urban Psychiatry, 1(2), 26-30.

Segal, S. P., & Baumohl, J. (1981). Toward harmonious community care placement. In R. Budson (Ed.), Issues in community residential care (pp. 49-61). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Segal, S. P., & Baumohl, J. (1981). Community care as an alternative to mental hospital care: A perspective on social welfare in the 1980's. In J. Tseng-Lu Li et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sino American conference on social welfare development in the 1980's (pp. 462-467) . Taichung, Taiwan, ROC: Tunghai University.

Segal, S. P., & Baumohl, J. (1981). Toward harmonious community care placement. In R. Budson (Ed.), Issues in community residential care (pp. 49-61). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Segal, S. P., & Dille, L. E. (1980). Coping styles and factors in male/female social integration. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 61, 8-20.

Segal, S. P., & Baumohl, J. (1980). Engaging the disengaged: Proposals on madness and vagrancy.Social Work, 25, 358-365.

Segal, S. P., Baumohl, J., & Moyles, E. W. (1980). Neighborhood types and community reaction to the mentally ill: A paradox of intensity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 345-359.

Segal, S. P., Chandler, S., & Aviram, U. (1980). Antipsychotic drugs in community-based sheltered-care homes. Social Science and Medicine, 14A, 589-596.

Segal, S. P., & Baumohl, J. (1980). Factors in the receipt of therapeutic assistance in community care. Social Science and Medicine, 14A, 581-587.

Segal, S. P. (1980). Community care and human service responsiveness. Journal of the National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals, 11(5), 18-21.

Segal, S. P. (1980). The impact of recent rehospitalization on community adjustment. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 27(3), 163-172.

Segal, S. P., Baumohl, J., & Moyles, E. W. (1980). Neighborhood types and community reaction to the mentally ill: A paradox of intensity. In J. Rabkin, L. Gelb, and J. Lazar (Eds.), Attitudes toward the mentally ill: Research perspectives. Rockville, Maryland: National Institute of Mental Health.

Segal, S. P., Dille, L. E., & Moyles, E. W. (1979). Congruent perceptions in the evaluation of community-care facilities. Community Psychology, 7, 60-68.

Segal, S. P. (1979). Sheltered-care needs. Health and Social Work, 4(2), 42-57.

Segal, S. P. (1979). Community care and deinstitutionalization: A review. Social Work, 24(6), 521-527.

Segal, S. P., & Aviram, U. (1979). Reintegrating the mentally ill in the community. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 2(4), 499-506.

Segal, S. P., & Moyles, E. W. (1979). Management style and institutional dependency in sheltered care. Social Psychiatry, 14, 159-165.

Segal, S. P. (1978). Attitudes toward the mentally ill: A review. Social Work , 23(3), 211-217.

Segal, S. P. (1978). Reaction to Segal's literature review: Segal comments. Social Work, 14(6), 436, 516-517.

Segal, S. P. (1978). Issues in the utilization and evaluation of social work treatment. International Social Work, 21(1), 1-17.

Segal, S. P., & Aviram, U. (1978). The mentally ill in community-based sheltered care: A study of community care and social integration. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

Segal, S. P., & Aviram, U. (1978). The mentally ill in community-based sheltered care: A technical supplement on study methodology, 1972-1977. Berkeley, CA: University of California.

Aviram, U., & Segal, S. P. (1977). From hospital to community care: The change in the mental health treatment system in California. Community Mental Health Journal, 3(2), 158-167.

Segal, S. P., Baumohl, J., & Johnson, E. (1977). Falling through the cracks: Mental disorder and social margin in a young vagrant population. Social Problems, 24(3), 387-400

Segal, S. P., & Aviram, U. (1976). Transition from mental hospital to community. In Social welfare forum 1975 pp. 121-130. New York: Columbia University Press.

Trute, B., & Segal, S. P. (1976). Census tract predictors and the social integration of sheltered-care residents. Social Psychiatry, 11(4), 153-161.

Segal, S. P., & Aviram, U. (1976). Community-based sheltered care. In Ahmed and Plog (Eds.), State mental hospitals: What happens when they close? (pp. 111-124). New York: Plenum Publishing Corp.

Segal, S. P. (1976). Individual characteristics affecting the sheltered care needs of the mentally ill. USDHEW (Ed.),Community living arrangements for the mentally ill: Issues and options for public policy (pp. 1-8). Washington, DC: USDHEW.

Segal, S. P. (1975). Inclusion and exclusion: Crosscurrents in community-based sheltered care for the mentally ill. In R. Hetherington and C. Hamm (Eds.), Proceedings of a conference on the closing of state hospitals, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

Segal, S. P. (1974). Life in board and care: Its political and social context. Proceedings of a Conference on the Closing of State Hospitals (pp. 141-151). Menlo Park, California: Plog Research Corporation and Stanford Research Institute.

Aviram, U., & Segal, S. P. (1973). The exclusion of the mentally ill: Reflection on an old problem in a new context. Archives of General Psychiatry. Arc Gen Psychiatry, 29 , 126-131.

Gruenberg, E. D., Turns, D., Segal, S. P., & Solomon, M. (1972). Social breakdown syndrome: Environmental and host factors associated with chronicity. American Journal of Public Health.Health and Social Work, 4(2), 91-94.

Segal, S. P. (1972). Research on the outcome of social work therapeutic interventions: A review of the literature. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 13, 3-17.

Segal, S. P., & Burgess, P. Preventing psychiatric hospitalization and involuntary outpatient commitment.Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Social Work in Health and Mental Health.

Segal, S. P. Self Help Groups. Social Work Encyclopedia.

Segal, S.P. Deinstitutionalization. Social Work Encyclopedia